There are a wide variety of weapon choices for your soldier in Escape from Tarkov. Depending on the ammunition and weapon you have, you can deal varying damage to different levels of health and armor.
It's important to understand what ammo you have in your inventory and how much damage it does. Luckily, one Reddit user has created an in-depth ammo chart for every choice of ammo and weapon in Escape from Tarkov.
User NoFoodAfterMidnight on Reddit created a spreadsheet of the different ammo options in Escape from Tarkov, and how much damage, armor damage, and Frag damage each piece of ammunition does. Another user, nighteeeeey, made the spreadsheet into a high res photo for all to view and break down. You can download the high-res spreadsheet for free via u/nighteeeeey's Reddit post.
Pistols, Rifles, mounted weapons and even the Buckshot Grenade launcher are all included in the Ammunition spreadsheet. According to the spreadsheet, out of all the ammo types in the game, the RIP 12 gauge slugs do the most damage, with 265 damage per shot as well as 100% frag chance. The shotguns do massive damage in Escape from Tarkov, and the best possible ammunition for shotguns looks to be the RIP slugs.